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试论紧急状态下对公民基本权利的保障.doc

资料分类:法律论文 高级会员(陈老师)提供原创论文资料更新时间:2016-09-14
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摘要:现代民主宪政国家都肩负着保障其本国公民基本权利的神圣职责,这已成为世界各国的共识。但各国对能否真正保障紧急状态下公民基本权利这一问题的回答则未必一致,其答案也将成为验证一个国家是否为一个成熟法治国家的试金石。现代法治要求政府在紧急状态时所采取措施都必须以保障公民基本权利为最终归依。然而,在紧急状态时政府紧急权力的行使往往会带来公民部分权利的限制,但它与公民基本权利的保障不应该是对立的。本文通过我国现阶段紧急状态下对公民基本权利限制的现状及其原因的探索,从权利保护的角度对我国紧急状态下公民基本权利保护制度的完善提出粗浅的意见。

关键词:公民基本权利;权利保障;制度完善;紧急状态

 

Abstract:Nowadays, the democratic constitutional governments have a sacred responsibility to guarantee the basic rights of their citizens , and this has already became a common consensus all over the world. But when it comes to the question that whether every  country can truly secure the basic civil rights of their citizens under emergency situation , the answer may not be unanimous. Meanwhile the answer will also become a touchstone  to verify whether a country is a mature country under the rule of law. Modern law requires the measures taken by government  in emergency situation must be able to guarantee citizens' basic civil rights and the government should make it as the original purpose. However, it will restrict quite a part of the civil rights of citizens while government execute the emergency power under the emergency situation. But it should not be opposite to the civil rights of citizens. To explore the current situation of the civil rights taken under the present emergency situation and to find out the reason of it, this article will put forward some humble opinions on the promotion of civil rights protection system taken under emergency situation from the point of view of civil rights protection.

Key words: Basic civil rights;Protection of civil rights; Promotion of government systems ;Emergency situation

 

   随着社会的发展,突发事件不仅频繁发生而且日益呈现出复杂化且危害加重的趋势,这些突发事件随时可能致使国家进入紧急状态。当国家处于紧急状态时,若不行使国家紧急权迅速整合资源应对危机,不但公民的生命财产和正常的社会秩序无法得到保障,甚至国家自身的生存都受到巨大威胁。紧急状态下国家权力尤其是行政权急剧扩张可能会侵犯公民权利。这种情况下,公民的权利就容易受到限制和威胁。因此国家权力与公民权利在紧急状态下该如何协调成为了一个不容忽视的问题。具体来说,在紧急状态的过程中,国家所采取的种种应急措施的法律依据何在?应该遵守怎样的法律程序?国家权力的范围和边界在哪里?如何充分保障公民的基本权利?从现有的制度进行探讨和分析,挖掘出现有制度的不足之处从而保障公民的基本权利成为一个值得探讨的问题。

 

论文资料贡献者对本文的描述:具体来说,在紧急状态的过程中,国家所采取的种种应急措施的法律依据何在?应该遵守怎样的法律程序?国家权力的范围和边界在哪里?如何充分保障公民的基本权利?从现有的制度......
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